In the final process stage of cement manufacturing, the cement clinker is extracted from the clinker stores or silos and finely ground, together with gypsum as a setting regulator and possibly other additive materials with hydraulic or pozzolanic properties.
The composition and fineness determine the cement properties and thus the strength of the produced concrete. The different types and strength categories of cement are stored in separate silos and then discharged into loading systems.
In recent years, cement manufacturers have significantly increased their product ranges – a trend that can be expected to continue for economical and ecological reasons. One aspect is the substitution of cement clinker through secondary components that are waste materials from other industries (e.g. granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash) or that occur naturally (e.g. limestone and pozzolana).