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Supercritical Fluids Particle Generation

Particle Generation

Particle processes using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2)

Numerous processes with supercritical CO2 have been developed which allow the generation or modification of fine particles with defined particle size distributions in micro- and even nano-scale of certain shape and/or determined morphology. This new technology is of highest relevance to generate pharmaceutical products and substances. The dosing and release properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are significantly influenced by the particle properties. New drugs with exact and controlled properties will be possible in the near future by using these new processes complementing traditional granulation and spray drying processes.

Process flowsheet for GAS-process (Gas antisolvent crystallization)
Process flowsheet for GAS-process (Gas antisolvent crystallization)

Characteristics of high pressure micronisation

  • Physical characteristics when applying supercritical fluids to melts/solutions:
    • reduction of viscosity
    • reduction of surface tension.
  • Quick super-saturation by pressure change and contact to supercritical fluid, respectively
  • High nucleation rate, small growth rate
  • Particles in micro- or nano-scale possible
Process flowsheet for RESS-process
Process flowsheet for RESS-process

Advantages of using supercritical fluids

  • Size: micro- to nanometer
  • Narrow size distribution adjustable
  • Control of geometry (spherical, needle, etc.)
  • Morphology (smooth, porous, massive) controllable
  • Applicable to difficult substances, for example with high melting points or high viscosity
  • No thermal stress due to mild temperature conditions
  • No oxidation due to inert atmosphere
  • Possibility of generation of composites
Process flowsheet for PGSS ™ -process (Particles from saturated solutions)
Process flowsheet for PGSS ™ -process (Particles from saturated solutions)
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